Islam has introduced social laws which set rights, and duties of even, individual to ensure stability in society. Some of these rights are specific while others are general. Of the specific rights are:

Rights Owed to the Ruler

[1] Muslims must obey the ruler as long as he does not order them to do something forbidden in Islam. Allah (SWT) says:

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad (ﷺ)), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. [4:59] [2] They must give sincere advice to the ruler, in a good and kind manner, by guiding him and his people to beneficial things, and to remind him of the needs of his subjects. Allah (SWT) instructed Moses and his brother Aaron upon sending them to Pharaoh to preach the true Religion to him:

And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah). [20:44]

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: ‘The Religion is sincerity.’ We said ‘To whom?’ He said `To Allah, and His Book, and His Messenger, and to the leaders of the Muslims and their common folk” [Muslim] [3] To support him in times of adversity and crises and not to revolt against him or forsake him, even if one was from a group who does not pledge allegiance to him. The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

“Whoever comes to you while you are all united under a single leader and wishes to disrupt the unity and solidarity (of the Muslims), kill him.” [Muslim]

Rights Owed to the Ruled

These rights fall under five general fundamentals:

[1] Justice. This is achieved by giving everyone their due right A ruler is required to be just, such that he protects others ‘rights performs his duties, distributes responsibilities, and implement; rules and decisions. All should stand as equals before him._ no individual or group should be favoured above others. The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

“Indeed the most beloved person to Allah and the closest one to be seated to Him on the Day of Requital will be a just ruler. And indeed the most detestable person on the Day of Requital and the most severe of them in punishment will be a tyrannical ruler.” [at-Tirmidhi] [2] He must not oppress, deceive, or behave treacherously towards the masses. The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

“No slave is given responsibility over some people and dies in a state in which he is treacherous to them, except that Allah forbids him from Paradise.” [Muslim] [3] He must consult them regarding all affairs pertaining to their political, social and economic interests. He must allow them to voice their views, and he must accept such views if they prove to be in the best interest of the public. Allah (SWT) says:

And by the Mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh hearted, they would have broken away from you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allah’s) Forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs.[ 13:159]

The Messenger of Allah (SWT) encamped behind the wells before the Battle of Badr, so one of his Companions (Al-Hubab ibn al-mundhir) asked him: “Has Allah inspired you to choose this spot, or is it strategy of war?” The Prophet replied: “It is the strategy of war.” Upon that, Al-Hubab said to the Prophet: “Let us go and encamp after the wells in order to prevent the enemy from them (from drinking).” So the Prophet (ﷺ) took his advice.

[4] His laws and constitution should be in accordance to Islamic Law. There is no room for him to judge according to his imperfect whims or desires. `Umar ibn ul-Khattaab, the second Caliph of Islam, said to Abu Maryam as-Salooli who killed his brother, Zaid ibn ul-Khattaab: “By Allah, I will not like you until the earth likes blood!” He replied, “Will this [hatred] deprive me of my rights?” `Umar said, “No.” He then said: “Then there is no harm, for only women are displeased if they are not liked.”

[5] He should not withdraw himself from the masses or lock his doors before them, nor should he belittle them or assign mediators between him and the public; who allow some people to enter and prevent others. The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

“Whoever is given responsibility of some matter of the Muslims but withdraws himself while they are in dire need and poverty, Allah will withdraw Himself from him while he is in dire need and poverty on the Day of Requital.” [Abu Dawood]

 [6] He should be merciful to his subjects and not burden them with unbearable tasks or restrict their way of living. The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

“O Allah, whoever takes command of something of my nation and makes things hard for them, then make things hard for him, and whoever takes command of something of my Ummah (Nation)and is gentle with them, then be gentle with him.” [Muslim]

`Umar ibn ul-Khattaab explained the greatness of this matter in his words:

“By Allah, if a mule were to fall in Iraq, I would fear that Allah would ask me why I did not level the road for it.

” The Muslim ruler must be as al-Hasan al-Basri, may Allah have mercy upon him, described in a letter which he sent to `Umar ibn Abdul-Azeez, in which he said:

“O Leader of the Faithful! Know that Allah has made the just ruler as one who straightens the crooked, one who restrains the oppressors, one who reforms the corrupt, one who strengthens and brings justice to the weak, and one who brings refuge to the afflicted.

O Leader of the Faithful! A just ruler is like a kind shepherd who looks for the best pastures for his flock and steers them away from areas of danger and wild animals, and protects them from harms.

O Leader of the Faithful! A just ruler is like a caring father who toils for the sake of his children, educates them as they grow up, and earns bread for them while he is still alive, and leaves for them (wealth) after his death.

O Leader of the Faithful! A just ruler is like an affectionate mother who has loving care for her son. She bears him with hardship, and delivers him with hardship. She cares for him while he is a little child, staying awake at night when he does and sleeps when he does. She feeds him at times, and weans him at others, and she feels happy about his good health and worries when he complains.

O Leader of the Faithful! A just ruler is the guardian of orphans and sponsor of the needy, he cares for the young and provides for the old.

O Leader of the Faithful! A just ruler is like a heart within the ribs. When the heart is healthy the ribs become healthy, but when it is sick they grow unhealthy.

O Leader of the Faithful! A just ruler is the one who listens to the Words of Allah and makes them listen to it, he is the one who seeks the reward of Allah, and makes his subjects seek His reward. He is the one who submits to the will of Allah and makes his subject submit to Him.

O Leader of the Faithful, do not misuse what Allah has bestowed upon you, like a slave who his master entrusted him with his wealth and family, and he squandered the wealth and made his children homeless.

O Leader of the Faithful, know that Allah has prescribed certain castigatory punishments to deter his slaves from doing evil…what if the one who is charged with this duty does a sin that necessitates this? Castigations would safeguard people’s lives… what if the one who is charged with this duty commits murder?

O Leader of the Faithful be mindful of death, and what will take place thereafter, and the little number of helpers; so gather whatever provisions you can in order to prepare for it and the horrors that follow it.

O Leader of the Faithful, know that you have a different home unlike your present home. In it your sleep will last long, and your friends will part with you, and leave you all by yourself. Therefore, take those provisions which may accompany you.

That Day shall a man flee from his brother. * And from his mother and his father, * And from his wife and his children.[80:34-6]

O Leader of the Faithful, remember the words of Allah: (When the contents of the graves are brought out and poured forth. * And that which is in the breasts (of men) shall be made known…[100:9-10]

On that Day secrets will be revealed, as well as your record of deeds:

that leaves neither a small thing nor a big thing, but has recorded it. [18:49]

O Leader of the Faithful, there is still time for you before death comes and all hopes are shattered and lost (to work righteousness).

O Leader of the Faithful! Judge between your subjects with the laws of Islam, and do not lead them in the way of the wrong-doers. Do not give the proud power over feeble, as they do not observe any pacts or honour towards a believer; and so that you should not bear the sins of others. Do not be deceived by those who enjoy things that lead to your misery, and devour the good things while depriving you of the good things of the Hereafter. Do not think of your power today; but think of it tomorrow when you become the captive of death, standing on the Day of Requital before Allah in the presence of an assembly of angels, prophets and messengers, when…

(All) faces shall be humbled before (Allah,) the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. [20:111]

O Leader of the Faithful! Although I have not attained with this advice the level of wise men or their reason and wisdom before me, I have done my best to be sincere in my advice to you. So take my message as a medicine given by a loving person to his favorite friend… although it has bitter taste, it would serve as a cure.”

1 Comment

  • شهر صفر

    August 26, 2021 - - 4:37 am

    كلماتك يكتب بماء من ذهب لأنها في قمة الروعة

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